Third Escalation (1855-1858)

Between the end of the second escalation and the start of the third there was nearly a decade of diminished conflict. It was during this time, in 1845, when Florida achieved statehood. In 1853, Florida passed a law making it illegal to trade with Indians. Furthermore, it was illegal for any Seminole to be within Florida state lines making the third and final escalation of the Seminole War inevitable as hundreds of Indians remained living on reservations in the Everglades.

While aggressions had been accruing on both sides for some time, hostilities flared once more after a band of men surveying the land for future development destroyed Seminole farmland without suffering formal consequences. In the end, the government spent three years trying to root out the last of Florida’s historic Indians. They would ultimately give up and leave several hundred Indians still living in the Big Cypress Swamp and the Everglades. These hardy souls represent the ancestors of today’s Seminole Tribe of Florida, the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida, and the Independent Seminoles.

First Escalation (1817-1818)

Second Escalation (1835-1842)